Tuesday, September 8, 2009


Dictionary.com defines Epiphany as "a sudden, intuitive perception of or insight into the reality or essential meaning of something, usually initiated by some simple, homely, or commonplace occurrence or experience." This definition does not include a feeling of "DUH!" or "DOH!" or "Damn, I'm an idiot, how did I not see that sooner?!" though all of those certainly apply to the Epiphany I had a few weeks ago.

In this case, that moment of insight revolves around the concept of a Model. MVC, MVP, MVVM: each pattern starts with Model but what is a Model? For me, it had been nothing more than a data house, a class with get/set properties and MAYBE a couple of recurring little utility methods (format date or whatever). In other words, it was a class representation of the database. It was my LINQ-to-sql or Entity Framework data classes. Or my model classes in Ruby on Rails, which represent and map to the database.

That is a model, it's a model of the database, but is that really a useful thing? Is that what your Model in MVC, MVP, MVVM is supposed to be? The Epiphany came in the form a question from one of my co-workers. He asked, "Where's the OO?"

Indeed, where is the object orientation in my code? And that's when it hit me, there is none.

I mean, I write in C# so technically everything is an object. But I don't have any classes that exist to model a real world thing or concept. They just aren't there. I have utility/framework classes that exist to support the application infrastructure itself. Classes like StoredProcedure and Parameter, etc. These weren't a big leap, I'm basically just copying the .NET Framework. But I'm not writing a Framework, that's not my job. My job is to write a business application for my client, and I don't have a single object dedicated to modeling the client's business.

So effectively, when it comes to the domain, I'm writing procedural code. I might as well be writing in C.

How could this have happened? When I look back at the projects I did in college I was modeling all over the place. I had graphs and nodes and simulations and swarm agents and they were all objects, all models. But when I entered the business programming world and was confronted with Guis and Databases, I didn't transfer any of that. The main challenges then appeared to be 1. dealing with the UI and 2. dealing with the database. So all my efforts were set about those areas, the actual domain logic that the application was really there for was just scattered around.

Enter Domain Driven Design: The key point that I simply didn't understand is that Object Oriented Programming is about modeling the world. Yes, it's about abstraction and encapsulation, but those are really tools used to create a Model.

This is obvious, and if you had said it to me I would have thought I'd always known it and wouldn't have grasped the significance. The significance is that it's a drastic change in perception. If you're writing software, your software is doing something for someone. I would have asked the question, "what is it doing?" But a more appropriate question is "what does it model?" The "doing" is then included in the answer, along with the relationships and the data elements and the rules etc...

And now that you're modeling, you're taking advantage of all the benefits of object oriented programming. There is a very good reason why every modern language is object oriented.

In Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software Eric Evans talks about all the reasons why modeling the domain is so important, and also introduces all kinds of software patterns that help make modeling the domain possible. There are two quotes that I think really explain the importance of this concept of modeling and indicate why it is such a shift of perception.
Model-Driven Design has limited applicability using languages such as C, because there is no modeling paradigm that corresponds to a purely procedural language. Those languages are procedural in the sense that the programmer tells the computer a series of steps to follow. Although the programmer may be thinking about the concepts of the domain, the program itself is a series of technical manipulations of data. The result may be useful, but the program doesn't capture much of the meaning. Procedural languages often support complex data types that begin to correspond to more natural conceptions of the domain, but these complex types are only organized data, and they don't capture the active aspects of the domain. The result is that software written in procedural languages has complicated functions linked together based on anticipated paths of execution, rather than by conceptual connections in the domain model.
The last sentence is the biggie for me. I've never heard a better description than "complicated functions linked together based on anticipated paths of execution." That perfectly describes what my code has looked like.

Evans also has this to say:
In an object-oriented program, UI, database, and other support code often gets written directly into the business objects. Additional business logic is embedded in the behavior of UI widgets and database scripts. This happens because it is the easiest way to make things work, in the short run.

When the domain-related code is diffused through such a large amount of other code, it becomes extremely difficult to see and to reason about. Superficial changes to the UI can actually change business logic. To change a business rule may require meticulous tracing of UI code, database code, or other program elements. Implementing coherent, model-driven objects becomes impractical. Automated testing is awkward. With all the technologies and logic involved in each activity, a program must be kept very simple or it becomes impossible to understand.
Not only is it the easiest way, it's the way the Microsoft tools encourage you to work. I now understand why the ALT.NET community was so pissed about Entity Framework. But that's the standard Microsoft approach: catering to the least common denominator. And as long as what you're doing is simple, you'll be fine. In fact, that's probably the right way to go because you'll have less code, less overhead, and still be able to understand and change it.

But I haven't worked on an app that was that simple, in, well ever. And I've been focusing so heavily on the technology, database access and the UI framework, that I forgot the real complexity was in the domain.

Of course now that I understand this I have to figure out how to write applications with a rich Domain Model layer. How do you persist changes from the domain? How do you do change tracking in the domain? How do different elements of the domain communicate with each other? How does a rich domain oriented application work with a service layer? And most important of all, how do you start adding a rich domain to an application that was written without one? Hopefully the DDD book will have the answer to most of these questions.

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